Aci 440.2 r 17 pdf
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Note – Trailing EPS is displayed only when latest 4 quarter results are available. It is not to be confused with Ascetic. When undiluted, it is sometimes called glacial acetic acid. It consists of a methyl group attached to a carboxyl group. The global demand for acetic acid is about 6.
The trivial name acetic acid is the most commonly used and preferred IUPAC name. The systematic name ethanoic acid, a valid IUPAC name, is constructed according to the substitutive nomenclature. The Ac is not to be confused with the abbreviation for the chemical element actinium. The name acetate can also refer to a salt containing this anion, or an ester of acetic acid. Acetic acid is a weak monoprotic acid. In solid acetic acid, the molecules form chains, individual molecules being interconnected by hydrogen bonds. The acetyl group, formally derived from acetic acid, is fundamental to all forms of life.
When bound to coenzyme A, it is central to the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. Acetic acid is produced and excreted by acetic acid bacteria, notably the Acetobacter genus and Clostridium acetobutylicum. Acetic acid is produced industrially both synthetically and by bacterial fermentation. Most acetic acid is produced by methanol carbonylation.
Two related processes for the carbonylation of methanol: the rhodium-catalyzed Monsanto process, and the iridium-catalyzed Cativa process. By altering the process conditions, acetic anhydride may also be produced on the same plant using the rhodium catalysts. Prior to the commercialization of the Monsanto process, most acetic acid was produced by oxidation of acetaldehyde. This remains the second-most-important manufacturing method, although it is usually not competitive with the carbonylation of methanol. The acetaldehyde can be produced by hydration of acetylene. The typical reaction is conducted at temperatures and pressures designed to be as hot as possible while still keeping the butane a liquid. Under similar conditions and using similar catalysts as are used for butane oxidation, the oxygen in air to produce acetic acid can oxidize acetaldehyde.
Acetaldehyde may be prepared from ethylene via the Wacker process, and then oxidised as above. In more recent times, chemical company Showa Denko, which opened an ethylene oxidation plant in Ōita, Japan, in 1997, commercialised a cheaper single-stage conversion of ethylene to acetic acid. The approach will be based on utilizing a novel selective photocatalytic oxidation technology for the selective oxidation of ethylene and ethane to acetic acid. For most of human history, acetic acid bacteria of the genus Acetobacter have made acetic acid, in the form of vinegar. Given sufficient oxygen, these bacteria can produce vinegar from a variety of alcoholic foodstuffs. Industrial vinegar-making methods accelerate this process by improving the supply of oxygen to the bacteria.