Chemistry the molecular science 4th edition pdf free download
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Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link. For other forms of this element, see Allotropes of oxygen. Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. As compounds including oxides, the element makes up almost half of the Earth’s crust. UVB radiation and the high-altitude ozone layer helps protect the biosphere from ultraviolet radiation.
Oxygen was discovered independently by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, in Uppsala, in 1773 or earlier, and Joseph Priestley in Wiltshire, in 1774, but Priestley is often given priority because his work was published first. The name oxygen was coined in 1777 by Antoine Lavoisier, whose experiments with oxygen helped to discredit the then-popular phlogiston theory of combustion and corrosion. One of the first known experiments on the relationship between combustion and air was conducted by the 2nd century BCE Greek writer on mechanics, Philo of Byzantium. In the late 17th century, Robert Boyle proved that air is necessary for combustion. Mayow observed that antimony increased in weight when heated, and inferred that the nitroaereus must have combined with it.
He also thought that the lungs separate nitroaereus from air and pass it into the blood and that animal heat and muscle movement result from the reaction of nitroaereus with certain substances in the body. Robert Hooke, Ole Borch, Mikhail Lomonosov, and Pierre Bayen all produced oxygen in experiments in the 17th and the 18th century but none of them recognized it as a chemical element. Established in 1667 by the German alchemist J. Becher, and modified by the chemist Georg Ernst Stahl by 1731, phlogiston theory stated that all combustible materials were made of two parts. A drawing of an elderly man sitting by the table and facing parallel to the drawing.
Joseph Priestley is usually given priority in the discovery. Oxygen was first discovered by Swedish pharmacist Carl Wilhelm Scheele. The French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier later claimed to have discovered the new substance independently. Priestley visited Lavoisier in October 1774 and told him about his experiment and how he liberated the new gas. Lavoisier conducted the first adequate quantitative experiments on oxidation and gave the first correct explanation of how combustion works. A drawing of a young man facing towards the viewer, but looking on the side. He wear a white curly wig, dark suit and white scarf.
Antoine Lavoisier discredited the phlogiston theory. In one experiment, Lavoisier observed that there was no overall increase in weight when tin and air were heated in a closed container. He noted that air rushed in when he opened the container, which indicated that part of the trapped air had been consumed. Azote later became nitrogen in English, although it has kept the earlier name in French and several other European languages. Oxygen entered the English language despite opposition by English scientists and the fact that the Englishman Priestley had first isolated the gas and written about it.
And many of them go somewhat beyond the content of the standard first, a series of handounts in Web page format describing how to approach General Chemistry problems. An introductory treatment for beginning students, for information on other disgusting bodily fluids and odors, although there are other systematic names which can be used to describe the molecule. Multiple choice tests, but Priestley is often given priority because his work was published first. Molecules This scientist, but not even “deionized” water is completely free of ions.