Creating america a history of the united states pdf
For a timeline of events, see timeline of Colonial America. The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European settlements from the start of colonization creating america a history of the united states pdf the early 16th century until their incorporation into the United States of America.
European settlers came from a variety of social and religious groups, including adventurers, soldiers, farmers, and tradesmen, and some from the aristocracy. Over time, non-British colonies East of the Mississippi River were taken over and most of the inhabitants were assimilated. No major civil wars occurred in the thirteen colonies. Colonizers came from European kingdoms that had highly developed military, naval, governmental, and entrepreneurial capabilities.
England, France, and the Netherlands had also started colonies in both the West Indies and North America. They had the ability to build ocean-worthy ships but did not have as strong a history of colonization in foreign lands as did Portugal and Spain. However, English entrepreneurs gave their colonies a foundation of merchant-based investment that seemed to need much less government support. Initially, matters concerning the colonies were dealt with primarily by the Privy Council and its committees. Mercantilism was the basic policy imposed by Britain on its colonies from the 1660s. Mercantilism meant that the government became a partner with merchants based in England, with the goal of increasing political power and private wealth, to the exclusion of other empires and even other merchants based in its own colonies. The government also fought smuggling, and this became a direct source of controversy with American merchants when their business activities became classified as smuggling according to the Navigation Acts—including activities that had been considered business as normal previously, such as direct trade with the French, Spanish, Dutch, and Portuguese.
The prospect of religious persecution by authorities of the crown and the Church of England prompted a significant number of colonization efforts. Anonymous Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to map the eastern seaboard of the U. New York to Florida, as documented in the Cantino planisphere of 1502. Other countries did attempt to found colonies in America over the following century, and most of these attempts ended in failure.
The colonists faced high rates of death due to many reasons, including disease, starvation, inefficient resupply, conflict with American Indians, and attacks by rival European powers. The Spaniard Juan Ponce de León named and explored Florida. Starting in the 15th century, Spain built a huge colonial empire in the Americas, consisting of New Spain and other viceroyalties. The Castillo de San Marcos, built to defend Spanish St. Spain established several small outposts in Florida in the early 16th century. The most important of these was St.
Shipbuilding was a staple, most New England parents tried to help their sons establish farms of their own. Southern New Jersey, as did the Quakers and the Methodists. Malaria was deadly to many new arrivals in the Southern colonies. Purpose space of the yeoman houses, there was a shipyard at the mouth of almost every river in New England. Up and down the colonies, the ruins of the Spanish Mission San Juan Capistrano in California.
Augustine, founded in 1565 but repeatedly attacked and burned by pirates, privateers, and English forces. Its buildings survived, even as nearly all the Spanish left. It claims to be the oldest European settlement in the continental United States. The British attacked Spanish Florida during numerous wars. As early as 1687, the Spanish government had begun to offer asylum to slaves from British colonies. In 1693, the Spanish Crown officially proclaimed that runaways would find freedom in Florida, in return for converting to Catholicism and a term for men of four years’ military service to the Crown.
In effect, Spain created a maroon settlement in Florida as a front-line defense against English attacks from the north. In 1763, Spain traded Florida to Great Britain in exchange for control of Havana, Cuba, which had been captured by the British during the Seven Years’ War. Florida was home to about 3,000 Spaniards at the time, and nearly all quickly left. Throughout the 16th century, Spain explored the southwest from Mexico, with the most notable explorer being Francisco Coronado, whose expedition rode throughout modern New Mexico and Arizona.