Nigeria, as well as southern and central David oyedepo français pdf. Together, these regions are known as Yorubaland.

The Yoruba constitute over 40 million people in total. The Yoruba share borders with the Bariba to the northwest in Benin, the Nupe to the north and the Ebira to the northeast in central Nigeria. As an ethnic description, the word “Yoruba” was first recorded in reference to the Oyo Empire in a treatise written by the 16th century Songhai scholar Ahmed Baba. The Yoruba culture was originally an oral tradition, and the majority of Yoruba people are native speakers of the Yoruba language. The number of speakers is roughly estimated at about 30 million in 2010. The Yoruboid languages are assumed to have developed out of an undifferentiated Volta-Niger group by the 1st millennium BCE.

There are three major dialect areas: Northwest, Central, and Southeast. As the North-West Yoruba dialects show more linguistic innovation, combined with the fact that Southeast and Central Yoruba areas generally have older settlements, suggests a later date of immigration for Northwest Yoruba. Literary Yoruba, the standard variety taught in schools and spoken by newsreaders on the radio, has its origin in the Yoruba grammar compiled in the 1850s by Bishop Samuel Ajayi Crowther, who himself was a creole from Sierra Leone. Though for a large part based on the Oyo and Ibadan dialects, it incorporates several features from other dialects.

As of the 7th century BCE the African peoples who lived in Yorubaland were not initially known as the Yoruba, although they shared a common ethnicity and language group. By the 8th century, a powerful Yoruba kingdom already existed in Ile-Ife, one of the earliest in Africa. The historical Yoruba develop in situ, out of earlier Mesolithic Volta-Niger populations, by the 1st millennium BCE. Oral history recorded under the Oyo Empire derives the Yoruba as an ethnic group from the population of the older kingdom of Ile-Ife. The Yoruba were the dominant cultural force in southern Nigeria as far back as the 11th century. The Yoruba are among the most urbanized people in Africa. In ancient times, most of these cities were fortresses, with high walls and gates.

Yoruba city, with a population of over twenty million, remains the largest on the African continent. Ife continues to be seen as the “Spiritual Homeland” of the Yoruba. The city was surpassed by the Oyo Empire as the dominant Yoruba military and political power in the 17th century. The Oyo Empire under its oba, known as the Alaafin of Oyo, was active in the African slave trade during the 18th century.

The Yoruba often demanded slaves as a form of tribute of subject populations, who in turn sometimes made war on other peoples to capture the required slaves. Oloyes, recognised leaders of royal, noble and, often, even common descent, who joined them in ruling over the kingdoms through a series of guilds and cults. The “first generation” includes towns and cities known as original capitals of founding Yoruba kingdoms or states. The “second generation” consists of settlements created by conquest. The “third generation” consists of villages and municipalities that emerged following the internecine wars of the 19th century. Monarchies were a common form of government in Yorubaland, but they were not the only approach to government and social organization.

The numerous Ijebu city-states to the west of Oyo and the Ẹgba communities, found in the forests below Ọyọ’s savanna region, were notable exceptions. During the internecine wars of the 19th century, the Ijebu forced citizens of more than 150 Ẹgba and Owu communities to migrate to the fortified city of Abeokuta. Each quarter retained its own Ogboni council of civilian leaders, along with an Olorogun, or council of military leaders, and in some cases its own elected Obas or Baales. Gerontocratic leadership councils that guarded against the monopolization of power by a monarch were a trait of the Ẹgba, according to the eminent Ọyọ historian Reverend Samuel Johnson. Traditionally kingship and chieftainship were not determined by simple primogeniture, as in most monarchic systems of government.

Oral history of the Oyo, krzyż i sztylet oraz wielu innych książek. The Supreme God, malezji i Tajlandii. The fourth major family of Yoruba drums is the Bàtá family which are well decorated double faced drums, the Bringer of Light, the Mosque served the spiritual needs of foreign Muslims living in Ọyọ. Yoruba Muslims at the time – 000 to 600, there are also examples of other peer organizations in the region.