Dog behavior is the internally coordinated responses of individuals or groups of domestic dogs to internal and external stimuli. It has factors of socialization pdf shaped by millennia of contact with humans and their lifestyles. Whole genome sequencing indicates that the dog, the gray wolf and the extinct Taymyr wolf diverged at around the same time 27,000-40,000 years ago. Dog intelligence is the ability of the dog to perceive information and retain it as knowledge for applying to solve problems.

Dogs have been shown to learn by inference. A study with Rico showed that he knew the labels of over 200 different items. The dog’s senses include vision, hearing, sense of smell, taste, touch and sensitivity to the earth’s magnetic field. Dog communication is about how dogs “speak” to each other, how they understand messages that humans send to them, and how humans can translate the ideas that dogs are trying to transmit.

Humans communicate with dogs by using vocalization, hand signals and body posture. Two studies have indicated that dog behavior varied with their size, body weight and skull size. Dog playing with a guinea pig. Play between dogs usually involves several behaviours that are often seen in aggressive encounters, for example, nipping, biting and growling. It is therefore important for the dogs to place these behaviours in the context of play, rather than aggression. Dogs signal their intent to play with a range of behaviours including a “play-bow”, “face-pawed” “open-mouthed play face” and postures inviting the other dog to chase the initiator.

From a young age, dogs engage in play with one another. Dog play is made up primarily of mock fights. It is believed that this behavior, which is most common in puppies, is training for important behaviors later in life. Emotional contagion is linked to facial mimicry in humans and primates. Facial mimicry is an automatic response that occurs in less than 1 second in which one person involuntary mimics another person’s facial expressions, forming empathy. It has also been found in dogs at play, and play sessions lasted longer when there were facial mimicry signals from one dog to another. The motivation for a dog to play with another dog is distinct from that of a dog playing with a human.

Dogs walked together with opportunities to play with one another, play with their owners with the same frequency as dogs being walked alone. Dogs in households with two or more dogs play more often with their owners than dogs in households with a single dog, indicating the motivation to play with other dogs does not substitute for the motivation to play with humans. It is a common misconception that winning and losing games such as “tug-of-war” and “rough-and-tumble” can influence a dog’s dominance relationship with humans. Rather, the way in which dogs play indicates their temperament and relationship with their owner. Dogs that play rough-and-tumble are more amenable and show lower separation anxiety than dogs which play other types of games, and dogs playing tug-of-war and “fetch” are more confident. Playing with humans can affect the cortisol levels of dogs.

In one study, the cortisol responses of police dogs and border guard dogs was assessed after playing with their handlers. The cortisol concentrations of the police dogs increased, whereas the border guard dogs’ hormone levels decreased. In 2012, a study found that dogs oriented toward their owner or a stranger more often when the person was pretending to cry than when they were talking or humming. When the stranger pretended to cry, rather than approaching their usual source of comfort, their owner, dogs sniffed, nuzzled and licked the stranger instead. The dogs’ pattern of response was behaviorally consistent with an expression of empathic concern. A study found a third of dogs suffered from anxiety when separated from others.

The term personality has been applied to human research, whereas the term temperament has been mostly used for animal research. Ratings of individual dogs: either a caretaker or a dog expert who is familiar with the dog is asked to answer a questionnaire, for instance the Canine Behavioural Assessment and Research Questionnaire, concerning how often the dog show certain type of behaviour. Tests: the dog is submitted to a set of tests and its reactions are evaluated on a behavioural scale. For instance, the dog is presented to a familiar and then an unfamiliar person in order to measure sociability or aggression. Observational test: The dog’s behaviour is evaluated in a selected but not controlled environment. Dog Breed plays an important role in the dog’s personality dimensions, while the effects of age and sex have not been clearly determined.

Two dogs playing follow the leader. Dominance is a descriptive term for the relationship between pairs of individuals. The status of the consistent winner is dominant and that of the loser subordinate. One test to ascertain in which group the dominant dog was used the following criteria: When a stranger comes to the house, which dog starts to bark first or if they start to bark together, which dog barks more or longer? Which dog licks more often the other dog’s mouth? If the dogs get food at the same time and at the same spot, which dog starts to eat first or eats the other dog’s food? If the dogs start to fight, which dog usually wins?

Dogs have an olfactory sense 40 times more sensitive than a human’s and they commence their lives operating almost exclusively on smell and touch. The special scents that dogs use for communication are called pheromones. Different hormones are secreted when a dog is angry, fearful or confident, and some chemical signatures identify the sex and age of the dog, and if a female is in the estrus cycle, pregnant or recently given birth. Male dogs prefer to mark vertical surfaces and having the scent higher allows the air to carry it farther. The height of the marking tells other dogs about the size of the dog, as among canines size is an important factor in dominance.