For the Romanian village of Apoș, see Bârghiș. Latin alphabet and some other alphabets. The apostrophe looks the same as a closing single quotation mark in many fonts, although they have different garner’s modern english usage pdf, and Unicode recommends using the quotation mark character to represent most uses of the apostrophe.

It was introduced into English in the 16th century in imitation of French practice. The use of elision has continued to the present day, but significant changes have been made to the possessive and plural uses. The apostrophe is used to indicate possession. Possessive personal pronouns, serving as either noun-equivalents or adjective-equivalents, do not use an apostrophe, even when they end in s. Other pronouns, singular nouns not ending in s, and plural nouns not ending in s all take ’s in the possessive: e. Plural nouns already ending in s take only an apostrophe after the pre-existing s when the possessive is formed: e.

In many cases, both spoken and written forms differ between writers. In such examples, the plurals are formed with an s that does not occur at the end: e. A problem therefore arises with the possessive plurals of these compounds. Some grammars make no distinction in meaning between the two forms.

If the word or compound includes, or even ends with, a punctuation mark, an apostrophe and an s are still added in the usual way: “Westward Ho! Many style guides, while allowing that these constructions are possible, advise rephrasing: the head of marketing’s husband prefers that . His ’n’ Hers’s first track is called “Joyriders”. For complications with foreign phrases and titles, see below. An apostrophe is used in time and money references, among others, in constructions such as one hour’s respite, two weeks’ holiday, a dollar’s worth, five pounds’ worth, one mile’s drive from here. This is like an ordinary possessive use.

No apostrophe is used in the following possessive pronouns and adjectives: yours, his, hers, ours, its, theirs, and whose. The possessive of it was originally it’s, and it is a common mistake today to write it this way, though the apostrophe was dropped in the early 1800s and authorities are now unanimous that it’s can be only a contraction of it is or it has. Those things over there are my husband’s. Those things over there belong to my husband. Those things over there are my husbands’. Those things over there belong to several husbands of mine.

Those things over there are my husbands. I’m married to those men over there. The spelling of these ends with -s, -se, -z, -ze, -ce, -x, or -xe. Many respected authorities recommend that practically all singular nouns, including those ending with a sibilant sound, have possessive forms with an extra s after the apostrophe so that the spelling reflects the underlying pronunciation. Although less common, some contemporary writers still follow the older practice of omitting the extra s in all cases ending with a sibilant, but usually not when written -x or -xe. Similar examples of notable names ending in an s that are often given a possessive apostrophe with no additional s include Dickens and Williams.