The term “crowdsourcing” was coined in 2005 by Jeff Howe and Mark Robinson, editors at Wired, to describe how businesses were using the Internet to “outsource work to the crowd”, which quickly led to the portmanteau “crowdsourcing. The micro small and medium enterprises development act 2006 pdf prerequisite is the use of the open call format and the large network of potential laborers. In a February 1, 2008, article, Daren C. Brabham, “the first to publish scholarly research using the word crowdsourcing” and writer of the 2013 book, Crowdsourcing, defined it as an “online, distributed problem-solving and production model.

Crowdsourcing is a type of participative online activity in which an individual, an institution, a nonprofit organization, or company proposes to a group of individuals of varying knowledge, heterogeneity, and number, via a flexible open call, the voluntary undertaking of a task. As mentioned by the definitions of Brabham and Estellés-Arolas and Ladrón-de-Guevara above, crowdsourcing in the modern conception is an IT-mediated phenomenon, meaning that a form of IT is always used to create and access crowds of people. Henk van Ess, a college lecturer in online communications, emphasizes the need to “give back” the crowdsourced results to the public on ethical grounds. Crowdsourcing is channeling the experts’ desire to solve a problem and then freely sharing the answer with everyone.

Despite the multiplicity of definitions for crowdsourcing, one constant has been the broadcasting of problems to the public, and an open call for contributions to help solve the problem. Members of the public submit solutions that are then owned by the entity, which originally broadcast the problem. In some cases, the contributor of the solution is compensated monetarily with prizes or with recognition. In other cases, the only rewards may be kudos or intellectual satisfaction. Another consequence of the multiple definitions is the controversy surrounding what kinds of activities that may be considered crowdsourcing.

While the term “crowdsourcing” was popularized online to describe Internet-based activities, some examples of projects, in retrospect, can be described as crowdsourcing. The Longitude Prize: When the British government was trying to find a way to measure a ship’s longitudinal position, they offered the public a monetary prize to whomever came up with the best solution. Matthew Fontaine Maury distributed 5000 copies of his Wind and Current Charts free of charge on the condition that sailors returned a standardized log of their voyage to the U. By 1861, he had distributed 200,000 copies free of charge, on the same conditions. Peanut logo was designed by a 14-year-old boy who won the Planter Peanuts logo contest. Paris, France-Inter radio, and the Fnac: 14,000 photographers produced 70,000 black-and-white prints and 30,000 color slides of the French capital to document the architectural changes of Paris. 60,000 from their fans to help finance their U.

Kodak’s “Go for the Gold” contest: Kodak asked anyone to submit a picture of a personal victory. Jeff Howe coined the term crowdsourcing in Wired. Crowdsourcing has often been used in the past as a competition to discover a solution. The French government proposed several of these competitions, often rewarded with Montyon Prizes, created for poor Frenchmen who had done virtuous acts. In response to a challenge from the French government, Nicolas Appert won a prize for inventing a new way of food preservation that involved sealing food in air-tight jars.

Henk van “Crowdsourcing: how to find a crowd”, crowdsourcing: What can be Outsourced to the Crowd, solving and production model. 000 copies free of charge, on the same conditions. Crowdsourcing allows those who would benefit from the project to fund and become a part of it, the crowd was motivated by a mix of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. This approach ultimately allows for well, are the immediately received compensations given to those who complete tasks.