This article is about algorithms specific to paging. Page replacement algorithms were a hot topic operating system concepts abraham silberschatz 8th edition pdf research and debate in the 1960s and 1970s. Since then, some basic assumptions made by the traditional page replacement algorithms were invalidated, resulting in a revival of research.

Size of primary storage has increased by multiple orders of magnitude. With several gigabytes of primary memory, algorithms that require a periodic check of each and every memory frame are becoming less and less practical. Memory hierarchies have grown taller. The cost of a CPU cache miss is far more expensive.

This exacerbates the previous problem. In particular, most modern OS kernels have unified virtual memory and file system caches, requiring the page replacement algorithm to select a page from among the pages of both user program virtual address spaces and cached files. The latter pages have specific properties. Moreover, as the goal of page replacement is to minimize total time waiting for memory, it has to take into account memory requirements imposed by other kernel sub-systems that allocate memory. A global replacement algorithm is free to select any page in memory.

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