560,000 active personnel as of 2017. The Pakistan Army has a regimental system but is operationally and geographically divided into command zones, with pakistan relation with neighbouring countries pdf field of being the corps. Existence and its constitutional role is protected by the Constitution of Pakistan, where its role to serves as land-based uniform service branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces.

The Pakistan Army came into its modern birth from the division of the British Indian Army that ceased to exist as a result of the partition of India that resulted in the creation of Pakistan on 14 August 1947. Before even the partition took place, there were plans ahead of dividing the British Indian Army in different parts based on the religious and ethnic influence on the areas of India. Command and control at all levels of the new army was extremely difficult, as Pakistan had received six armoured, eight artillery and eight infantry regiments compared to the twelve armoured, forty artillery and twenty-one infantry regiments that went to India. Fearing that India would take over the state of Kashmir, irregulars, scouts and tribal groups entered the Muslim majority state of Kashmir to oppose the Maharaja of Kashmir 1947.

In response to this, the Maharaja acceded to India. The Indian Armed Forces were then deployed to Kashmir. The Pakistan Army took over from politicians for the first time when General Ayub Khan came to power through a bloodless coup in 1958. Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan’s army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan. At the time of ceasefire declaration, per neutral sources, India casualties were at 3,000 and Pakistani casualties were 3800. Pakistan lost between 200-300 tanks during the conflict and India lost approximately 150-190 tanks.

However, most neutral assessments agree that India had the upper hand over Pakistan when ceasefire was declared. During the rule of Yahya Khan, the people of East Pakistan protested against various political and economic disparities that had been imposed on them by West Pakistan and massive civil unrest broke out in East Pakistan. The original plan envisioned taking control of the major cities on 26 March 1971, and then eliminating all opposition, political or military, within one month. The prolonged Bengali resistance was not anticipated by Pakistani planners. On 16 December 1971, Pakistan Army’s 93,000 soldiers under leadership of lieutenant-general A. Two AH-1S Cobra attack helicopters of the Pakistan Army Aviation Wing at AVN Base, Multan.

These were sold to Pakistan by the US during the Soviet-Afghan war to help defend Pakistan against a possible attack by the Soviets. In 1977, a coup, Operation Fair Play, was staged by General Zia ul-Haq and the government was overthrown. This led to the hanging of Bhutto after he was tried and proclaimed guilty of conspiracy of murdering a political opponent by Zia’s handpicked judges. In the mid-1970s, the Pakistan Army was involved in fighting an uprising in the Province of Balochistan. Various Baloch factions wanted independence or at least greater provincial rights.

Both armies will be evenly matched in the first 24 hours since the Pakistani units have to travel a shorter distance to their forward positions. Each command is directly affiliated to the Army HQ in Rawalpindi. Archived from the original on 27 March 2016. If not capture – much to Ayub’s chagrin. On the Siachen Glacier. In my opinion, the army runs the largest real estate business in Pakistan under the auspices of Defense Housing Societies and other welfare societies.

The rebellion was put down on the behest of the Bhutto government but the Army suffered heavy casualties. In the 1980s, the Pakistan Armed Forces co-operated with the United States to provide arms, ammunition and intelligence assistance to Afghan rebels who were fighting the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. During 1st Gulf War, the Pakistan Army contributed troops for the defence of Saudi Arabia against a possible attack by Iraq. Pakistan sent UN Peacekeeping forces to the former Yugoslavia during the Yugoslav wars. During the war, Pakistan supported Bosnia while providing technical and military support. Militants took over the Lal Masjid in Islamabad.

After a six-month standoff fighting erupted again in July 2007 when the Pakistani military decided to use force to end the Lal Masjid threat. The militants then expanded their base of operations and moved into the neighbouring Swat Valley, where they imposed Sharia law. The Pakistan Army launched an offensive to re-take the Swat Valley in 2007, but was unable to clear it of the militants who had fled into the mountains and waited for them to leave before taking over the valley again. Public opinion then turned decisively against the Taliban terrorists. This opinion was highlighted following the release of a video showing the flogging of a girl by the Pakistani Taliban in the Swat Valley. Similar events and terrorist attacks finally forced the Pakistan Army to launch a decisive attack against the Taliban occupying Swat Valley in April 2009, after having orders received from the political leadership.