The front cover of an Irish passport showing the name of the state in its two official languages. Proclamation of the irish republic pdf have been various names for the state that is today officially known as Ireland. The state makes up almost five-sixths of the island of Ireland.

Article 4 of the Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that “he name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland”. An envelope from the Office of the Revenue Commissioners, stating “No Postage Stamp necessary if posted in Republic of Ireland”. However, Ireland remains the constitutional name of the state. The constitutional name Ireland is normally used. However, the legal description Republic of Ireland is sometimes used when disambiguation is desired between the state and the island of Ireland.

In colloquial use this is often shortened to ‘the Republic’. This distinction between description and name was and remains important because the Act was not a constitutional amendment and did not change the name of the state. If it had purported to do so, it would have been unconstitutional. The distinction between a description and a name has sometimes caused confusion. If I say that my name is Costello and that my description is that of senior counsel, I think that will be clear to anybody who wants to know name in Irish is Éire and in the English language, Ireland.

Its description in the English language is “the Republic of Ireland. Many countries include reference to “republic” in their names including the “French Republic” and the “Italian Republic”. In contrast, other republics, like Ireland and Hungary do not do so. Irish state joined under both of its names, Éire and Ireland.

The Inter Institutional Style Guide of The Office for Official Publications of the European Communities sets out how the names of the Member states of the European Union must always be written and abbreviated in EU publications. Crioch Fuinidh signifying the Final or remote country. Inisfail meaning the Island of Destiny, and Inisfalia or Insula Fatalis in Latin. This was the name used by the Tuatha Dé Danann and from this ‘Fál’ became an ancient name for Ireland.

In this respect, therefore, Lia Fáil, the Stone of Destiny, came to mean ‘Stone of Ireland’. Banba and Fódla were names given by the Dananns from three of their queens. Ierne refers to Ireland by various ancient Greek writers and many scholars have the opinion that in the poem when the Argonauts passes Neson Iernida, that is, the Island Iernis, they are referring to the island of Ireland, thus referring to Ireland longer ago than 1000 BC. Insula Sacra or the “Sacred Isle” was how several Roman writers referred to the island on account of its being a celebrated seat of Druidism. Ogygia meaning the most ancient land is a name used by Plutarch in the first century which may refer to Ireland. Hibernia is first used to refer to Ireland by Julius Caesar in his account of Britain, and became a common term used by the Romans. They also used a number of other terms, namely Juverna, Juvernia, Ouvernia, Ibernia, Ierna, Vernia.

Ptolemy also refers to it as Iouernia or Ivernia. Scotia or the land of the Scots is a term used by various Roman and other Latin writers, who referred to Irish raiders as Scoti. Some of the earliest mentions are in the 5th century, St. Patrick calls the Irish “Scoti”, and in the 6th century, St. Following the Norman invasion, Ireland was known as Dominus Hiberniae, the Lordship of Ireland from 1171 to 1541, and the Kingdom of Ireland from 1541 to 1800. In English, the revolutionary state proclaimed in 1916 and ratified in 1919 was known as the Irish Republic or, occasionally, the Republic of Ireland.

Lloyd George a document in Irish, and then a translation in English. The Irish document was headed ‘Saorstat Eireann’ and Mr. Lloyd George began by asking modestly for a literal translation, saying that ‘Saorstat’ did not strike his ear as Irish. Lloyd George, ‘but what is the Irish word for Republic’.

The term Poblacht na hÉireann is the one used in the Easter Proclamation of 1916. However the Declaration of Independence and other documents adopted in 1919 eschew this title in favour of Saorstát Éireann. It was established under the Government of Ireland Act 1920 on 3 May 1921. However, political turmoil and the ongoing War of Independence meant that it never fully functioned as envisaged. Southern Ireland was superseded in law on 6 December 1922 by the establishment of the Irish Free State. During the negotiations on secession leading to the Anglo-Irish Treaty, Irish politicians wanted the state to be a republic, and its name to be the Republic of Ireland or the Irish Republic. As mentioned above, Article 4 of the Constitution of Ireland, gives the state its two official names, Éire in Irish and Ireland in English.