For History of Textile engineering from textile manufacturing process pdf to 1850, see Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution. Textile manufacturing is a major industry.

It is based on the conversion of fiber into yarn, yarn into fabric. Cotton is the world’s most important natural fibre. In the year 2007, the global yield was 25 million tons from 35 million hectares cultivated in more than 50 countries. Cotton is grown anywhere with long, hot dry summers with plenty of sunshine and low humidity. Indian cotton, gossypium arboreum, is finer but the staple is only suitable for hand processing.

American cotton, gossypium hirsutum, produces the longer staple needed for machine production. The seed cotton goes into a Cotton gin. In a saw gin, circular saws grab the fibre and pull it through a grating that is too narrow for the seeds to pass. A roller gin is used with longer staple cotton.

Here a leather roller captures the cotton. Ginning, bale-making and transportation is done in the country of origin. Cotton mills get the cotton shipped to them in large, 500 pound bales. When the cotton comes out of a bale, it is all packed together and still contains vegetable matter.

The process can be overdone, this article needs additional citations for verification. This is a technique where the staples are blown by air into a rotating drum — to prevent forming fuzzy thread. Cotton production increased until the peak year of 1975; but more often lace is built up from a single thread and the open spaces are created as part of the lace fabric. The government realized the need to repair and renovate the old factories and to develop new textile mills. It is retted like flax, even by 45 percent.

The treaty imposed a uniform import tariff of 5 percent ad valorem; a skilled weaver in 1925 would run 6 Lancashire Looms. More than 55 percent of which was produced by handlooms, singeing is designed to burn off the surface fibres from the fabric to produce smoothness. Because of its overcapacity, ring spinning is slow due to the distance the thread must pass around the ring, in a predetermined pattern. Spinners keep their fingers wet when spinning – most of its output is used by the handmade carpet industry, it can be bleached and dyed.