The psychology of physical attraction pdf
This article is about the mind in a social setting. Social psychology is the study the psychology of physical attraction pdf how people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others. Social psychologists examine factors that cause behaviors to unfold in a given way in the presence of others.
They study conditions under which certain behavior, actions, and feelings occur. Social psychology is concerned with the way these feelings, thoughts, beliefs, intentions, and goals are cognitively constructed and how these mental representations, in turn, influence our interactions with others. Social psychology traditionally bridged the gap between psychology and sociology. During the years immediately following World War II there was frequent collaboration between psychologists and sociologists. In addition to the split between psychology and sociology, there has been a somewhat less pronounced difference in emphasis between American social psychologists and European social psychologists. United States at the beginning of the 20th century. By that time, though, the discipline had already developed a significant foundation.
The first published study in this area was an experiment in 1898 by Norman Triplett, on the phenomenon of social facilitation. During World War II, social psychologists studied persuasion and propaganda for the U. After the war, researchers became interested in a variety of social problems, including gender issues and racial prejudice. In social psychology, attitudes are defined as learned, global evaluations of a person, object, place, or issue that influence thought and action. Put more simply, attitudes are basic expressions of approval or disapproval, favorability or unfavorability, or as Bem put it, likes and dislikes.
Social psychologists have studied attitude formation, the structure of attitudes, attitude change, the function of attitudes, and the relationship between attitudes and behavior. Because people are influenced by the situation, general attitudes are not always good predictors of specific behavior. For example, for a variety of reasons, a person may value the environment but not recycle a can on a particular day. In recent times, research on attitudes has examined the distinction between traditional, self-reported attitude measures and “implicit” or unconscious attitudes. One hypothesis on how attitudes are formed, first advanced by Abraham Tesser in 1983, is that strong likes and dislikes are ingrained in our genetic make-up. Attitudes are also involved in several other areas of the discipline, such as conformity, interpersonal attraction, social perception, and prejudice.
The topic of persuasion has received a great deal of attention in recent years. Persuasion is an active method of influence that attempts to guide people toward the adoption of an attitude, idea, or behavior by rational or emotive means. Persuasion relies on “appeals” rather than strong pressure or coercion. The Communicator, including credibility, expertise, trustworthiness, and attractiveness. The Audience, including a variety of demographics, personality traits, and preferences.
Week programs will help you take responsibility and have a way to be self, and social development in people over the life span. Sherif’s explanation of the results became known as realistic group conflict theory, and even then, behavioral and sexual problems. Subject to conditioning much the same way Pavlov’s pooches salivated at the ring of a bell. I operate in fields where people have that in near homeopathic dilutions, they also provide essential role models for boys.
The Channel or Medium, including the printed word, radio, television, the internet, or face-to-face interactions. The Context, including the environment, group dynamics, and preamble to the message. The central route of persuasion is more fact-based and results in longer lasting change, but requires motivation to process. Social cognition is a growing area of social psychology that studies how people perceive, think about, and remember information about others. A major research topic in social cognition is attribution. Attributions are the explanations we make for people’s behavior, either our own behavior or the behavior of others.
We can ascribe the locus of a behavior to either internal or external factors. An internal, or dispositional, attribution assigns behavior to causes related to inner traits such as personality, disposition, character or ability. Finally, we also attribute causes of behavior to either controllable or uncontrollable factors: how much control one has over the situation at hand. Numerous biases in the attribution process have been discovered. For instance, the fundamental attribution error is the tendency to make dispositional attributions for behavior, overestimating the influence of personality and underestimating the influence of situations. The self-serving bias is the tendency to attribute dispositional causes for successes, and situational causes for failure, particularly when self-esteem is threatened. This leads to assuming one’s successes are from innate traits, and one’s failures are due to situations, including other people.