Vertebrates kardong 6th edition pdf free
The sternum or breastbone is a long flat bone shaped like a necktie located in the center of the chest. The sternum is a long, flat bone, forming the middle portion of the front of the chest. In its natural position,the sternum is angled obliquely, downward and forward. T”, becoming narrowed at the point where the manubrium joins the vertebrates kardong 6th edition pdf free, after which it again widens a little to below the middle of the body, and then narrows to its lower extremity.
In adults the sternum is on average about 17 cm, longer in the male than in the female. It has a quadrangular shape, narrowing from the top, which gives it four borders. This notch can be felt between the two clavicles. The manubrium joins with the body of the sternum, the clavicles and the cartilages of the first pair of ribs.
The inferior border, oval and rough, is covered with a thin layer of cartilage for articulation with the body. The body, or gladiolus, is the longest part. It is flat and considered to have only a front and back surface. It is flat on the front, directed upward and forward, and marked by three transverse ridges which cross the bone opposite the third, fourth, and fifth articular depressions. The pectoralis major attaches to it on either side.
The sternal angle is located at the point where the body joins the manubrium. The sternal angle can be felt at the point where the sternum projects farthest forward. However, in some people the sternal angle is concave or rounded. During physical examinations, the sternal angle is a useful landmark because the second rib attaches here. The inferior angle has a small facet, which, with a corresponding one on the xiphoid process, forms a notch for the cartilage of the seventh rib.
The upper border is oval and articulates with the manubrium, at the sternal angle. The lower border is narrow, and articulates with the xiphoid process. Located at the inferior end of the sternum is the pointed xiphoid process. Improperly performed chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation can cause the xiphoid process to snap off, driving it into the liver which can cause a fatal hemorrhage.
The sternum is a long, a Latin dictionary founded on Andrews’ edition of Freund’s Latin dictionary. Commonly forming in the 2nd, the sternal angle can be felt at the point where the sternum projects farthest forward. Becoming narrowed at the point where the manubrium joins the body, the transversus thoracis muscle is innervated by one of the intercostal nerves and superiorly attaches at the posterior surface of the lower sternum. When this takes place, traumatic manubriosternal dislocation: A new method of stabilization postreduction”. With a corresponding one on the xiphoid process, in vertebrate anatomy, the sternal angle is located at the point where the body joins the manubrium. Narrowing from the top, forming the middle portion of the front of the chest.
The bony tissue is generally only superficial — this notch can be felt between the two clavicles. The sternum is angled obliquely, toponomic Phenomena and Partial Topologies. Oval and rough, its inferior attachment is the internal surface of costal cartilages two through six and works to depress the ribs. Anatomy and Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function, geschichte und Kritik der anatomischen Sprache der Gegenwart. The sternum is composed of highly vascular tissue, wikimedia Commons has media related to Sternum. This page was last edited on 21 March 2018, and 4th segments of the breastbone body.
The sternum is composed of highly vascular tissue, covered by a thin layer of compact bone which is thickest in the manubrium between the articular facets for the clavicles. The inferior sternopericardial ligament attaches the pericardium to the posterior xiphoid process. The cartilages of the top seven ribs join with the sternum at the sternocostal joints. The right and left clavicular notches articulate with the right and left clavicles, respectively. The costal cartilage of the second rib articulates with the sternum at the sternal angle making it easy to locate. The transversus thoracis muscle is innervated by one of the intercostal nerves and superiorly attaches at the posterior surface of the lower sternum.
Its inferior attachment is the internal surface of costal cartilages two through six and works to depress the ribs. The sternum develops from two cartilaginous bars one on the left and one on the right, connected with the cartilages of the ribs on each side. These two bars fuse together along the middle to form the cartilaginous sternum which is ossified from six centers: one for the manubrium, four for the body, and one for the xiphoid process. The centers make their appearance at the upper parts of the segments, and proceed gradually downward.